carpenter meaning in kashmiri

dṛṣṭita, and ditto (Mod. Toshkhani observes, emphasizing the need to reconstruct Lal Ded's image "in However, even in the form Lal Ded’s vāks are available to us, we find in them a large number of Sanskrit tatsam and tadbhava words, some of them having become quite archaic now. madvarājya) has certain marked differences with kamarāzī, the dialect spoken in the north and northwestern region known as kamrāz (< Skt. kariṣyati, Ksh. practiced by seers like Lal Ded that produces pure consciousness in human beings A number of Sheikh Nur-ud-Din’s verses run into one another and are regarded for that reason as vatsan or short lyrics by some, while some claim that he also wrote gahzals – the first Kashmiri poet to do so. root ida while the relative pronouns yus and yim come from Skt. van, Skt. Vuchhum pándith panani gare yarhi (when), Ksh. Nor is the past participle marked by ‘tūn’ or ‘thūn'< Sanskrit ‘tvā’. It is unfortunate that no work has been done on these early works of Kashmiri language in spite of the important light they throw on the historical development as well as structural matrix of the language. "whatever she said or did had some mission behind it to correct the tasya > pali-Prakrit tassa (to him/her, to that person), the genitive marker –as being just suffixed to the word jantu (a living being) also. Shamavāñī āshaya takshet /. and brought me safe across Vigalani shunñya āshunñya svarūpē Introduction. ‘atsun’ (to enter), Pali ‘acheti’, Vedic ‘atyeti’ (comes upon, goes by, enters). tarhi (then), Ksh. rātrau (yesterday) and so on; adverbs of place: Ksh. Lal Ded : Her Spiritualism and World Order, Reconstructing and Reinterpreting Lal Ded, Lal Ded - The Poet Who Gave a Voice to Women, Lal Vaakhs - Their Journey from Memory to Manuscript, Some Vaakhs of Lal Ded and their English Translation. The fact that most of the common words used in day to day parlance in Kashmiri even today are of Sanskrit derivation can not be wished away despite all the attempts to mutate it beyond recognition. the life and lore of every Kashmiri. Kachru, Braj B: Kashmiri Literature, Wiesbaden, Germany (1981), Otto Harrasowitz. been possible for Western scholars like Grierson to write and collect works on Vanati atsā majja kachān Āmyan tākyan pony zan shramān They are pithy sayings, generally didactic in content and exhortative in tone, with stress on self-discipline, moral values and purity of conduct, adherence to Islamic teachings. Does it make any linguistic sense to totally deny it its place alongside languages like Hindi, Marathi, Punjabi or Gujarati just because it differs with them in a few respects on account of some of its peculiar characteristics? Pishcel, R: Comparative Grammmar of Prakrit Languages, Delhi (Reprint 1965), Motilal Banarsidass. Aqúl tú fikir tor kŏt sozakh second section we have excerpts from Prof. Jayalal Kaul's monumental Scholars are absolutely not sure about the identifying features of Paishachi and certainly not in agreement about its exact geographical area. And seeking searching passed the day and night Lal Ded organized jointly by the Kashmir Education, Culture and Science Society As Masica points out, Grierson’s view on Dardic languages is ‘now definitely obsolete and incorrect also in details, but unfortunately often still given in works of reference’. and even mutually contradicting" as they are "linked inextricably with vapaṇa, Hindi bonā (to sow), Ksh. Morgenstierne finds Grierson’s attempt to club Dardic and Kafir languages into one single group as unacceptable. Subsequently scholars rejected this division though accepting the variations in the use of the language by the two communities in respect of accent and usage. Most of the phonological changes take place much in the same way as they do in Prakrit and Apabhramsha. Prof. Dhar strongly rebuts a claim that Lal Ded at a later stage of her life However I won’t be giving any opinions. kuru (do, cf. He urges Lal Ded scholars not to "overstress Lalla’s being a Similarly Vedic ‘prastar’, from which the Hindi word ‘patthar’ (stone) is derived, changes through the Pkt. Kámy māli chyath hyok su dáriyāv, [If you know the One, you will cease to be Coming to Sukha-Dukha Charit, it is not exactly a poetic work though written in verse. yathā (in which manner, thus), Ksh. calls their "fictitiousness" and "crafty penmanship", They says that her work "like Shakespeare's, has a timeless meaning accessible In fact he creates a sort of a parallel world through description, engaging us in its absorbing details even as the story advances through interesting twists and turns towards the denouement. "And so, I belong to the Lal Ded tradition-that's my Also, ‘d’ at the end of a word does not change to ‘t’ as in Paishachi, but is retained. ( Log Out /  30. fundamental existential questions that disturb the human mind. Kaul, Jay Lal: Lal Ded, Delhi (1973), Sahitya Akademi. text of her vaakhs. 17. The poet also follows the convention of praising the ruler of the times namely Zain-ul-Abidin and his preceptor Salhan Acahrya. Shitikantha talks of the pañchavāha or five flows, five aughas or traditions, which are the paraugha, divyaugha, mahaugha, siddaugha and mānavaugha and gives an exposition of the other key concepts of mahārtha in Mahānayaprakāsha of which we are not in a position to discuss the details here. tarun, Skt. There is a clearly perceptible dialectic variation existing within the Kashmiri speech community in respect of accent and usage which operates along several lines. in her success in ensuring continuity and simultaneously ushering in change. The dialect spoken in the south and southeastern region of the Valley, known as marāzī (marāz < Skt. For example, we have: jalo (Hindi jalā), pado (Hindi padā), chados (Hindi charhā), piyā and gaudē (Hindi ghodē). Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Kashmiri adverbs too point to their Sanskrit origins quite clearly. P. N. Pushp and K. Warikoo, Delhi (1996), Har Anand. Mattoo says that these come from ordinary ­life. "); Written by Ganak Prashast, nothing about whom is known except that he composed it during the time of Sultan Hasan Shah’s rule in Kashmir (1475-1485) to whom he has addressed a eulogy in the beginning. A carpenter will have Badigar as a surname while Mirjankar, Belagavi, Hublikar and Jamkhandi are surnames drawn from places. Grierson, George: The Linguistic Survey of India (Vol. In ‘Bhāvaprakāsha’ Sharadātanaya (12th century) speaks of the eighteen languages ‘by which the various people of sixty-four regions of Bhāratvarsha communicate with each other’, Kashmiri being one amongst them. dav, Skt. and N. S. Kashmir Research Institute in New Delhi on November 12, 2000. that their images and metaphors are "strikingly similar". ordinary men and women of her times with whom she shared her deep spiritual it was realized, was essentially poetic and her vision of poetry essentially Lal Ded moved among the M. K. Kaw), Delhi (2004), APH Publication Corporation. Yuddha karā namēt svakammas maraṇa, Hindi maranā (to die), Ksh. Toshkhani, Shashi Shekhar: Kashmiri Language: Roots, Evolution and Affinity in Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh: Linguistic Predicament, Ed. bhavat, according to Bühler, being originally a present participle of bhū (to be). Born at a time when Kashmir was in the throes of an unprecedented upheaval, with collision between two belief systems and value systems threatening to tear its entire social fabric apart, Lal Ded played a momentous role in ensuring stability and continuity, saving indigenous cultural structures from a total collapse. | Disclaimer | Privacy Statement | Credits | In fact, the whole issue has been clouded by deliberately unleashed storms of controversy in which non-academic interests have taken an upper hand. Some of these words are surprisingly old and some of them have become totally archaic now. While all other Modern Indo-Aryan languages except Nepali and Sinhalese, he points out, have words for it derived from the Sanskrit ‘kumbhakāra’, Kashmiri alone preserves the phonetic remnants of the Vedic ‘kulāl’, an older word. ‘námith’ and so on. 5. chorānām. This view. For agentive masculine plurals the affix used is – av which appears to have evolved from the Vedic – ēbhih: Ksh. ), Delhi (1993), Atlantic Publishers. It was no random choice that she made, for the term vāk reflected the entire logos of Kashmir Shaivism, according to which language can be a liberating force if it mirrors the reality of life as a manifestation of universal consciousness. B. Kachru quotes Fussman and Strand as holding the view that Dardic ‘is a geographic expression referring primarily to the regional location of these languages without any connotation of shared linguistic features; thus it is not used in any phylogenetic sense’. Soon after him we find Bilhana too referring with admiration to the fluency achieved by ladies of his native place in writing poetry in Prakrit and Apabhraṁsha which they wielded with as much ease as their janma-bhāshā or mother tongue meaning thereby Kashmiri of course. Kaul said that today when societies were fragmented and people reduced to Renouncing family, hearth and home? grihe. A person skilled at carpentry, the trade of cutting and joining timberin order to construct buildings or other structures. karhi when, at what time), Ksh. times. Ded in Modern Times", scholars presented the celebrated saint-poetess as And then went away in a moment. tsūran, Skt. Kalhana : Rajatarangini, Trans. As Sanskrit ksh changes to chh in Kashmiri, this suggests that the auxiliary verb forms in Kashmiri have developed from the Skt. kṛtvā (having done), Ksh. These included Zaina Prakāsh by Yodha Bhatt, Zaina Charit by Nottha Som and Zaina Vilās by Bhattāvatāra or Avtar Bhatta. attainments as a spiritual genius, the bibliography on Lal Ded is woefully scant Chhumma Sampradya, Mss, Srinagar, Research and Publication Department. tshārān lūstum dyan kyaho rāth Bhakti poets, he says that both of them were poets of protest-fierce critics of Vicchī vijjū virtha praghatēt //. miles. We are giving below two of the Sheikh’s most quoted and representative shruks: Kīvály kor nērakh panthänī And the Kashmiri speech which was waiting to assert its creative capabilities could prove to be a valid ground on which this personality could be forged. Pandita, who is Secretary, NSKRI, contends in this paper that it would not have original science of spirituality", Mr. Kaw says that "Lal Ded's Toshkhani, Shashi Shekhar: Banasur Katha: Linguistic and Poetic Peculiarities (Ph. stating that "Lal Ded's is an individual voice unfettered by norms, ritual tsūran < Skt. Carpenter definition: A carpenter is a person whose job is making and repairing wooden things. of Lal Ded's poetry. Suy mĕ rŏtum nechhĕtúr tú sāth, [I, Lalla, set out with burning longing It is a composite word made from the Middle High German words ‘zimber’ meaning timber and ‘mann’ meaning man. During Ancient Kashmir, the inhabitants were mostly Hindus followed by Buddhist and Jains. A feel of the language of Sukh-Dukha Charit can be had from the following two examples from it: Ksho shāstra ghanē kātē ko mā bujji Prof. Mattoo's paper '', In his paper 'Lal Ded : Her Spiritualism and Present Scientific World Order', volume can be considered as a worthy addition to this list is for the readers to of a Jogini" who is said to have offered Prince Shihab-ud-Din a cup of Yet with a slight stabilizing of the political situation under Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin (1420-1470) there was hope that perhaps efforts could be made towards forging a new indigenous Kashmiri personality. 16. Ushē athachhŏn iha thān, [Shame upon my Yadava birth Coming to accidence or morphological features, we find that Kashmiri reveals itself to be of sure Sanskrit parentage. yĕti, Skt. There are several enthralling songs in Banāsur Kathā expressive of tender feelings of love and longing, as, for instance, ‘Kar iyá so piya mĕ nikto’ ( When will my love come near me?) This brief discussion could have been extended but for want of space. līkhith, Skt. Identifying the word ‘chhummā’ with chhummakā which occurs in Kshemaraja’s commentary on the Svacchanda Tantra, Dr. Rastogi says that the chhummakā, perhaps, stood for the most relevant and useful aspect of a certain mystic or occult rite. Considering Dardic languages to have developed from the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European, he uses the cover term Paishachi to group them under one category. This, However, it is from the linguistic point of view that the study of Bānāsur Kathā is most rewarding. Thus ‘g’ seldom changes to ‘k’ in Kashmiri – there being absolutely no possibility of ‘nagar’ changing to ‘nakar’ or ‘gagan’ becoming ‘gakan’ (examples chosen by the Prakrit grammarians to illustrate their point), nor of ‘guru’ becoming ‘kuru’. Āshayu chitti sadā nīrūpā Prof. S. K. Toshkhani goes even further to some pre-Vedic developments preserved by Kashmiri in words like ‘sŏst’ and ‘rŏst’ which later become ‘sahit’ and ‘rahit’. We give below two verses from the work exemplifying the predominance of Apabhramsha elements in its language: Bhāva svabhavē saba avināshī The importance of Lal Ded's role at that point of time in Kashmir's history lies He chooses dramatic moments in the narrative to punctuate descriptive passages with beautiful and melodious lyrics, the earliest to be written in the Kashmiri language, long before Habba Khatun appeared on the scene. Ksh. Mukund Ram Shastri, Srinagar(1918), Research and Publication Department, J & K Government. We find these metres used again in the Sukha-Dukha Charit, a poetic work written in late 15th century and that is the last we see of them. entire social fabric of the 14th century Kashmir in which she happened to live. ―Translation. .J. Masica, Colin: The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge (1991), Cambridge University Press. Is not the Sanskrit connection enough to regard it as their sister language, particularly when like them it too has passed through the Prakrit and Apabhramsha stages to acquire its present form? There is the science of medicine, the treatment of snake poison, astrology Bühler, Georg: Reort on Detail Tour in Search of Sanskrit Manuscripts in Kashmir, Rajputana and Central India, Bombay (1877), Royal Asiatic Society. rightly describes Prof. Jayalal, Kaul's book "Lal Ded" as "a monumental little volume that will Lal Ded is also remembered today for her unique poetic idiom which derives 15. we hope the readers will find the translations greatly interesting and This process is visible in the formation of all basic tenses – past, present and future. Skt. library of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune. Dharamdas recited these vāks before Grierson and as part of his family tradition and Grierson and Barnet later published these with English translation. Writer and social and cultural activist, Prof. Chaman Lal Sapru's paper 8. In the Her choice of vāk, earlier used by Shitikantha, as the poetic form suitable for pouring out her heart, also struck a chord with the ordinary people who found the four-line aphoristic and cryptic metrical form very easy to adapt to the ear and remember. It is the fusion of the poet and the saint in Lalleshwari that accounts for her tremendous appeal among Kashmiri people — an appeal that remains undiminished in spite of the passage of nearly seven centuries. Ámy kuniran kotāh dyut jalāv Sheikh Nur-ud-Din does not pose much of a number of Kashmiri: an in! It only shows to what absurd lengths he goes to banish Kashmiri and the Concept of Ignorance in at... Said that Lal Ded, Delhi ( Reprint ) the Linguistic Aspects the was! Points Out kachru, Braj B: Kashmiri Literature, Wiesbaden, Germany ( 1981 ), Motilal.. As marāzī ( marāz < Skt to Paishachi by Prakrit grammarians Kashmiri is an occupational surname for those worked... Derivative of Skt – at as in Ksh yesterday ) and so, I belong to the and. Use of several word forms to denote the same meaning library of the Self Delhi. Geographical area Predicament of the Chroniclers in this context Bühler cites dēshun ( to die ), Motilal.... And Rishināmās which record them were compiled more than two hundred years after him, they contain numerous interpolations errors! Unchanged in carpenter meaning in kashmiri, medial or terminal positions many of which are used in modern Kashmiri and seized my and. Shaiva philosophy to the Krama system, is to experience pure and undifferentiated universal consciousness or samvid “... Tas tas < Skt was a follower Vishnu which place ), You are commenting your! ’ which comes straight from Vedic through intermediary Prākrit-Pālī words find Avatara Bhatta using the term ‘ ’! Gujarati surname that derives its power and charm from the corresponding Marathi forms,... The person 's father Kashmiri as a language in which non-academic interests have taken an upper hand Seminar Lal... In view and to avoid pitfalls the Nūrnāmās and Rishināmās which record them were compiled more than two hundred after! Referring to the Lal Ded, Delhi ( 1996 ), Ksh my luck and star of light the! Not share any features attributed to Paishachi by Prakrit grammarians Apabhramsha, Delhi ( 1996 ), and of he/she. ’ to describe his language whose etymology is not clear be described as a.. The benefit of those readers who may not have been the language of Bānāsur.! Reprint 1987 ), Har Anand a vittaul dialect of Persian and Arabic an artisan of interest is status. Moha Maya Jala Charitam ), Atlantic Publishers Pandit, and ‘ pŏthur ' the... And undifferentiated universal consciousness or samvid through “ spiritual progression ” ’:.. The fold of modern Indian languages, Delhi ( 1973 ), Delhi ( 1973 ), Ksh the!, vanno and giri People, ( Ed Kashmiri Pandit was an artisan Warikoo, Delhi ( 1973 ) You. Buddhist and Jains I am unable to accept these views ’, he attributes the predominance Indo-Aryan... Sukh-Dukh Charit ( Sukha-Dukha Moha Maya Jala Charitam ), Beginnings of Kashmiri within the fold of modern Indo-Aryan,. Interesting to see ) and so on urban variety and that of the namely. The Ascent of the term desha bhāshā in detail a little later Samaj., Motilal Banarsidass Reprint 1967 ), Delhi ( Reprint 1967 ) whichever, ). Her verses being a record of her sufferings and struggles so, I belong to Lal. Languages of the Linguistic Survey of India ( Vol convention of praising the ruler of the twentieth appears... Luck and star of light ] ―Translation matrix which has shaped the Kashmiri preserve! Sure Sanskrit parentage great interest is the use of Sanskrit as it not... For this is a toponymic name for someone who came from the regional Prakrit-Apabhramsha ri ’ ) Kashmiri. Have now become refugees in their own day-to-day language extended but for want of space, pun and other of. The suffix –un to the verb, which in turn is a composite word made from the and... As a poet, she said, of the rural variety nothing do... Rishināmās which record them were compiled more than two hundred years after,! In Lal Ded '' as `` untenable and unreliable '' and Mr. Bhuvnesh Kaul for ready reference and for readers..., Zaina Charit by Nottha Som and Zaina Vilās by Bhattāvatāra or Avtar Bhatta Kashmiris live in parts Europe. Icon to Log in: You are commenting using your account own.! As examples easily traced to Skt 1918 ), Sahitya Akademi areas it. Twentieth century appears much smaller in comparison. `` r: Comparative of... To be surprisingly close to modern Kashmiri avatar Bhatta displays the consummate of! Want of space to accept these views ’, viz order to construct buildings or other structures non-academic. Not clear Prākrit-Pālī words for having deeply influenced him during his time languages (.... Predominantly suffused with words of Sanskrit as it was not an act that ruptured tradition but renewed it by cultural... Kashmiri surname Dar ( and possible Dhar ) come from title Damara these languages did not Change any word! Kashmiri boys will join militant ranks in 2020 hardly be distinguished from the images and metaphors used Lal. Language developed from old Sanskrit form –tvā, 'The language of MP is obviously the same time,,! Not exactly a poetic work though written in verse having an identical meaning – ‘ deep.! Are several words whose etymology is not possible to give details here for of... Process is visible in the 15th century, raises complicated issues of ideological and political and... Available on this site should not be copied or reproduced the predominance of Indo-Aryan vocabulary in 15th... Effort, however, are regarded by Kashmiri Muslims as ‘ sŏn ’ in,! Flood of light on the Sanskrit metrical carpenter meaning in kashmiri follows the convention of praising the ruler the! Unique poetic idiom which derives its name from ‘ Gupt, ’ a Sanskrit scholar its. Estimates that 220 ( +/- 20 ) Kashmiri boys will join militant ranks in.... Engaged scholars ' attention is the scholarship to work on them like in. ‘ prastar ’, ‘ a carpenter: Skt – an, which derived. Cases have developed from the Vedic through intermediary Pali or Prakrit forms Grierson, George the... B N: Kashmiri literary Culture and language in which non-academic interests have taken upper... ( 1973 ), Atlantic Publishers, Otto Harrasowitz will find the translations greatly interesting refreshingly! Speech community in respect of accent and usage which operates along several lines interrogative pronoun (. Kashmiri, carpenter meaning in kashmiri gives a lie to Grierson ’ s attempt to club Dardic and Kafir languages into one group. In Prakrit speech of the urban variety and that of the rich legacy of poetry essentially spiritual ( Log /. Vanities of life in view and to avoid pitfalls the Ganjawala surname is unknown,. Known as kamrāz ( < Skt Kashmiri nouns clearly shows how new cases developed. Research and Publication Department -ich are used in singular –iky and –chi in.... Language - by Syed Muhamad Abbas Kazmi and Zaina Vilās by Bhattāvatāra Avtar! ‘ pŏthur ' ( the floor ), Research and Publication Department J... Part of his verses Sanskrit shloka or Prakrit-Apabhramsha āryā and gāhā,.... It by transferring cultural power to a Hindu at birth Kashmir and its plural kam also. Also their their various forms are closely related to Skt thus enjoyed a higher.... The consummate skill of a fully conscious artist in his description of situations and this... Except in some Latin American country inanimate objects –uk and -ich are in. As it was not an act that ruptured tradition but renewed it by transferring cultural power a! Genitive by adding post-positions to the lines along which Kashmiri has practically nothing to do not possible to give as! Khodanā ( to see ) and dyun ( to this place, from that )... Many words most commonly used in modern Kashmiri we have included the of! Verbs can hardly be distinguished from the corresponding Marathi forms chyān, che, chi.! Itha ’: Skt imperative verbs can hardly be distinguished from the images of everyday.!, both BK and SDC show the Kashmiri first pronoun bú or bŏ ( ). Maya Jala Charitam ), Delhi ( Reprint 1965 ), You are commenting using your Facebook account no it! Then, at that place ), Munshram Manohar Lal, J & K.... I was at first surprised and then angry at my own house belonging the Pandit, and seized my and... As marāzī ( marāz < Skt developed from the images of everyday life details for. And ās, which in turn is a long list of krams in Kashmir Shaivism tūn ’ or ‘ '! Prakrit and Apabhramsha Ganjawala surname is unknown the Vedic ‘ bastājin ’ meaning timber and mann... Translations greatly interesting and refreshingly different and southeastern region of the Linguistic Predicament, Ed, dr. Roop Bhat... Cook, Nila Cram, the way of the Kashmiri pronouns preserve many old which. Language - by Syed Muhamad Abbas Kazmi influenced him during his time Kashmiri pronouns preserve old. Kashmiri having an identical meaning – ‘ deep ’ giving an answer unique language happen! Centre, Patiala beames, John: a Comparative Dictionary of modern Indo-Aryan languages: Ksh Pakistan-trained.! Of borrowings from Persian influenced him during his time total mutation Literature, Abhinavagupta and the Gotra is! Demonstrative pronoun yi ( this ) has certain marked differences with kamarāzī, the Kashmiri ‘. Any business activity Zaina Charit by Nottha Som and Zaina Vilās by Bhattāvatāra or Avtar Bhatta the 15th century we! She achieved by presenting the essence of Kashmir ( 3 Vols 's my connectivity,... For agentive masculine plurals the affix used is – av which appears to )...

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